Using Turabian style the references are listed alphabetically by author. Where the author name is unknown, list alphabetically by title followed by the date. Second and following lines are indented 5 spaces or one half inch (hanging indent). Other Turabian rules are double spacing and month abbreviation except for the months of May, June and July.

In text citation using endnotes and footnotes are used in the Turabian system. The footnote or endnote begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document (see Footnotes/Endnotes below for more information).

The Turabian writing style dictates that unpublished interviews and personal conversations should be cited in text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. While other styles suggest referencing internet references in text, Turabian style does not and requires a full bibliographical reference. For website references the citation must include the date the page was created as well as the date it was viewed.

Footnotes or endnotes should be included with a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed within the text at the end of the sentence in which the source is cited. Each time a source is used for the first time in the document all relevant information about the source should be included at the end of the page or chapter. When citing the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, the title (or a shortened form of the title) and the page number(s) cited.

Related Links and Resources