APA

APA style is the most commonly used style in the sciences. Using this format sources should be listed alphabetically by author and the list must be titled, “References.” Use a hanging indent (five spaces or one half inch indent) for the second and all subsequent lines in each reference. The paper must include four main sections including: Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References. Citations on the Reference list should have italicized titles and the date after the author’s name.

In APA format style endnotes and footnotes are not encouraged. If explanatory notes are necessary a footnote can be used. A superscript number is used following the punctuation in-text. If the punctuation is in parenthesis then the footnote should be as well. Footnotes should appear on the final page of the document after the References page. Each double spaced footnote should be indented 5 spaces on the first line.

On the Reference page use only the last name and initials for the author and if the author is unknown begin with the title followed by the date. Only the first word of article and book titles should be capitalized but for periodicals all significant words should be capitalized. For websites include the date accessed and the date written or updated if known. If the creation date is unknown use the initials n.d., instead.

In-text citations using APA format requires the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example: (Jones, 1998). The citation should correspond to the reference in the list at the end of the paper.

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